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Pine



Short Description
Coniferous wood


Description
The pine tree occurs naturally throughout northern, central and eastern Europe. In Germany it has been widely used to forest open or waste land for over 200 years, which accounts for the second highest proportion of wooded area in Germany after spruce. Across large parts of Brandenburg the pine is characteristic of the landscape.

The native woodland pine or common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) belongs to the botanical family Pinaceae, of which more than 100 different kinds can be found in the northern Hemisphere. The most commonly planted variant comes from south eastern Europe, the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold).

Pine can grow to a height of 25 to 40 m depending upon location. In forested areas they grow very straight to an average age of 150 to 200 years, although individual trees can grow to be up to 600 years old. Pine is normally felled at an age of 100 to 160 years. Depending upon location, regional variants with different properties have developed.

The heartwood and sapwood are easy to distinguish from one another. The sapwood is yellowish-white to reddish-white, the heartwood is reddish-yellow and darkens to a reddish-brown colour. The annual growth ring breadth can vary from between 1 to 10 mm. The reddish summerwood is much darker than the light springwood, the annual growth rings are clearly visible. Depending upon the direction of cut the wood has a striped (radial cut) or wavy grain (cross cut) patterning.


Density 0.51 g/cm3

Properties
Pine wood is medium-weight and relatively soft. Its strength and elasticity are good. As with other coniferous woods, the properties of the wood depend upon the density of the annual growth rings: The higher the proportion of summerwood, the heavier and harder the wood.
The heartwood has good natural durability except where it is in direct contact with earth or moisture. It has a high natural moisture content, which can lead to a blue staining of the wood through fungal infection. The colouring only affects the appearance, not the physical properties of the wood.


Usage
Pine wood can be worked easily by hand or machine. It can be sliced or peeled. Nailed, screwed or glued connections are straightforward. The surface can be finished with all kinds of paints. The sapwood lends itself well to impregnation, less so the heartwood.


Dimensions
Pine wood is available as round or sawn timber, as well as veneer.
Other names: Forest pine, sandy pine


Applications
- Building and construction
- Interior furnishing, furniture
- Manufacture of composite wood materials
- Wood and paper pulp
- Masts and poles
- Windows, facade panelling